October 19, 2017

Xfce Theme Manager: A Single GUI To Change Any Xfce Theme (With Previews)

This is an old article that I found and sharing.

Xfce uses multiple settings GUIs for setting the window border, controls, icons, mouse cursor theme and so on and it doesn't include any thumbnails. However, if you customize your Xfce desktop frequently, you can use a tool called Xfce Theme Manager which allows you to change the themes from a single GUI and it also includes thumbnails so you can see how the theme looks like before applying it.


Xfce Theme Manager allows settings the following:
  • complete Xfce theme (window border, controls)
  • window borders only
  • controls only
  • icon theme
  • cursor theme
  • change the wallpaper


Also, under "Advanced" (screenshot above), you can adjust various settings like backdrop brightness and saturation, window button layout, window title position, change the fonts and the cursor size.

Other features included in Xfce Theme Manager:
  • customizable theme preview size: you can choose between huge, large, medium and small previews;
  • save the current theme (in case you use the window border from one theme and the controls from another theme for instance) which includes the wallpaper, font and so on;
  • install themes using drag'n'drop (the themes must be tar.gz archives);
  • reset the theme.

I did find one annoyance with Xfce Theme Manager though: when installing new themes, you must click the "Rebuild DB" (rebuild the themes database) under "Advanced" or else the newly installed themes won't show up or at least not immediately.

Here are a few more Xfce Theme Manager screenshots:






Install Xfce Theme Manager in Xubuntu


Xubuntu users can install Xfce Theme Manager from a PPA. The packages in the PPA below require Xfce 4.10, which is available by default in Xubuntu 12.10 and 13.04, but it's not available in Xubuntu 12.04 so for it, you'll also need to add the Xfce 4.10 Xubuntu 12.04 PPA! Alternatively, you can also build it from source (download link at the bottom of the post).

That said, let's add the PPA and install Xfce Theme Manager in Xubuntu:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:rebuntu16/other-stuff 
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install xfce-theme-manager

Once installed, the application should show up in the Xfce Settings Manager.

If you're not using Xubuntu, you can download Xfce Theme Manager from xfce-look.org.


Source: http://www.webupd8.org/2013/06/xfce-theme-manager-single-gui-to-change.html

October 18, 2017

Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora and elementary OS All Patched Against WPA2 KRACK Bug

Linux Mint, Arch Linux and Solus are also patched.

As you are aware, there's a major WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access II) security vulnerability in the wild, affecting virtually any device or operating system that uses the security protocol, including all GNU/Linux distributions.

Security researcher Mathy Vanhoef was the one to discover the WPA2 bug, which affects the wpa_supplicant and hostapd packages on Linux-based operating systems, allowing a remote attacker to obtain sensitive information like credit card numbers, passwords, usernames, etc. with key reinstallation attacks (a.k.a. KRACK).
This security issues alone is extremely important, and it's been documented over several CVEs, including CVE-2017-13077, CVE-2017-13078, CVE-2017-13079, CVE-2017-13080, CVE-2017-13081, CVE-2017-13082, CVE-2017-13086, CVE-2017-13087, and CVE-2017-13088. Therefore, you need to update your systems immediately.
Canonical announced a few hours ago that it patched the security issue in the Ubuntu 17.04 (Zesty Zapus), Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Xenial Xerus), and Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (Trusty Tahr) releases, as well as all official derivatives, including Kubuntu, Xubuntu, Lubuntu, Ubuntu MATE, Ubuntu Budgie, Ubuntu Kylin, and Ubuntu Studio.
In their security notice, Canonical notes the fact that two other security vulnerabilities were patched, both discovered by Imre Rad. The first one (CVE-2016-4476) could allow a remote attacker to cause a denial of service because both wpa_supplicant and hostapd incorrectly handled invalid characters in passphrase parameters.
The second issue (CVE-2016-4477) could allow a local attacker to either execute arbitrary code or cause a denial of service because wpa_supplicant and hostapd incorrectly handled invalid characters in passphrase parameters. These vulnerabilities affect all supported Ubuntu releases.
Debian, Fedora, Arch Linux, Linux Mint, Solus and elementary OS also patched
Of course, the wpa_supplicant and hostapd vulnerabilities mentioned above were also patched upstream, in Debian GNU/Linux, and the maintainers of the Ubuntu-based elementary OS and Linux Mint operating system also announced that they patched the issue, urging users to update their installations as soon as possible.
Fedora, Arch Linux and Solus operating systems have also been patched in the last few hours against the critical WPA2 security vulnerability, so, again, you are urged to update your installations immediately if you're using any of these distributions. Other distros may have updated the wpa_supplicant and hostapd packages too.

Source: http://news.softpedia.com/news/ubuntu-debian-fedora-and-elementary-os-all-patched-against-wpa2-krack-bug-518075.shtml

Installing Timeshift into Linux Mint 18.2 non-BTRFS

In a previous article it was stated that the next version of Linux Mint would include a piece of software called Timeshift, a very popular and powerful backup utility. However, currently Timeshift is not included with Linux Mint, and so an article about how to install it, and use it, is in order.

What is Timeshift?

Timeshift



Timeshift is a system backup and restore utility similar to Windows System Restore, or Mac OSX Time Machine. Essentially, Timeshift will allow you to make routine backups of your system, and restore them at any time, as well as the option of making manual backups if needed.

Installing Timeshift

Timeshift can easily be installed on any Ubuntu based system by use of a PPA:
  • sudo apt-add-repository -y ppa:teejee2008/ppa
  • sudo apt update
  • sudo apt install timeshift

Setting up Timeshift at first run

Timeshift is very straightforward with no confusing setup, thankfully. When first run, a short set of questions are asked.



Timeshift Setup1



The first box asks if you want to use RSYNC or BTRFS, unless you are running a BTRFS system (If you even have to ask, you are not running BTRFS), simply select the RSYNC Option.


Timeshift setup2



Next, we are asked for the snapshot location, simply select where you want to store your snapshots, and move on to the next screen.



Timeshift setup3



The next window, asks when snapshots should be taken, and how many should be stored in rotation. The default settings are usually fine for most people, opting to take a new snapshot each hour, storing 5 before they are thrown away. This means that at all times, you will have your last five hours constantly at your disposal, so if you do something you might regret, you can rollback to a previous hour, and not have (hopefully) lost much of your work you did after the snapshot was taken.

Using Timeshift

Once the setup is finished, you’ll be taken to the main Timeshift window, which again is very simple to use. For the purpose of this tutorial, let’s make a snapshot, and then restore it (Please don’t be doing anything super important at this time, as restoring the snapshot will cause your machine to reboot!)
Click the ‘Create’ button, and voila, a snapshot is automatically created with no mucking around. It took my system around 30 seconds to make a snapshot of my entire 600GB Linux partition on my new Desktop.
Now, at the main Timeshift screen you will see your snapshot we just made (and in the future, your other snapshots that were automatically made at the times you specified, such as every hour AND every boot.) To restore the snapshot we just took, simply click the snapshot you wish to restore and then click ‘Restore’ to be taken to the next screen.



Timeshift Restore Snapshots


On this screen you’ll be given the option to select where files will be restored (usually default is fine) as well as whether you want to keep the /boot and /home folders on the Root Device. If you have your /home folder in a separate partition or device, then change this accordingly, but if your system is not customized so heavily and it’s all stored in the same place; simply leave the defaults and click next.
Next, select any applications you wish to exclude, such as web browsers, torrent clients etc.
The next screen will notify you about what is about to happen, and give the typical “If your computer blows up, or takes over the world, we can’t be held responsible,” type disclaimer. Scan it over to make sure you’re all set, and then click next. You will then be given a black screen with scrolling text as Timeshift does it’s thing, before your machine is rebooted automatically. Upon logging back in, you are now loaded back into that snapshot of how your system was!

Last words

Timeshift is incredibly easy to use, and I for one am glad that it’s making its way into the upcoming Linux Mint by default, as I think everyone should be using it personally, as it’s simply invaluable to keep backups of your system.
What about you? Do you use a different utility? If so, will you be using Timeshift in the future on your Mint system, or will you stick with your current way of doing things?


Source: https://www.ghacks.net/2017/10/04/installing-timeshift-into-linux-mint-18-2-non-btrfs/

September 20, 2017

Linux Mint 18.2 XFCE

I recently tried Linux Mint XFCE 18.2 and found it a polished and responsive distro. Mint is based on Ubuntu/Debian 16.04 LTS and will be supported until April 2021. Below is a review and my own screen shots. The included wallpaper is similar to MacOS Yosemite. I installed the Plank dock, Audacious, Deluge, Screenlets, and the Chromium web browser. It already came with LibreOffice and Rhythmbox. The X Apps for their text editor, image viewer, pdf document viewer, and video player, add to the polished and consistent feel. Memory usage was 712 MB. These and other reasons are why Linux Mint continues to be the most popular Linux distro.








The standard Thunar File Manager and the Caja File Manager.































You can get Linux Mint in many different desktop versions here:
https://www.linuxmint.com/download.php



Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon Review: They Did it Again!


Linux Mint is one of the most popular (GNU/Linux) operating systems around, and according to Distrowatch.com‘s popularity ranking factor, for many years now Linux Mint has been on the top 3 most popular distributions (now it’s actually the number one!, surpassing Debian and Ubuntu. By the way, Fedora’s ranking is sinking fast, no surprise there though. Fedora is just a distribution for the coding elite of the GNU/Linux world and not for the average user, there I said it!). And there’s a good and a sensible reason for it (in my opinion anyway).
The reason is, with Linux Mint there is a sense of continuity where by change, it progresses. In other words, compared to the ‘radical’ and often chaotic changes that some other desktop environments bring such as GNOME, ‘change’ in Linux Mint is progressive. For instance, if you look at the evolution of the Cinnamon desktop (first released in 2011), so far it has been very consistent (UI-wise), yet, things have been vastly improved and hundreds of new features added. But if you look at the evolution of GNOME, by each major release (1x -> 2x and then from 2x -> 3x) there has been radical changes through which an entirely different looking (and functioning) desktop emerged. And sometimes the end result is quite chaotic for many end-users.



That being said, “Are radical changes bad?” That I cannot say. However, it’s usually the young and the energetic who are more prone to make radical choices. The old, the experienced and the settled, usually is more careful in their choices because experiences have taught them that there is a guaranteed positivity in change when it’s progressive. The best example is to look at the evolution of the Apple Mac OS. I mean look at the below screenshot. That’s how Mac OS used to look in 1984! And here we are after 32 years where so many radical changes have occurred, yet amazingly, the core identity of the desktop is still there, is it not?



Apple_Macintosh_Desktop



I don’t know what the future will bring for Linux Mint’s Cinnamon desktop environment, but here I am using the latest version of it (Linux Mint 18, Cinnamon) after 2 years, and for the past 3 days, I experienced the same stability, fastness, efficiency and although vastly improved, the same looking desktop environment that was there, not only 2 years ago, actually it was like this from the very beginning. And the users don’t complain! And according to Linux Mint developers, it’s actually the 3rd most popular operating system used on Earth, after Microsoft Windows and Mac OS. That’s how it should be done, methinks. And speaking from a software developer’s point of view, I think it’s alright to make radical changes at the early stages where one is still in the process of creating a core identity. But once you’re past it, you should move on with progressive steps not chaotic confusions. For instance, Ubuntu came up with Unity and it was a radical change back then, a totally revamped desktop UI. And they should better stick with it for many years to come. Otherwise, if all you ever do is introducing chaotic changes on how things are done, you either are a genius or an idiot who don’t have a clear goal in mind, let alone displaying the lack of instinctively mastered skill.
The philosophical lesson is over, let’s move on with the Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon Review . So as soon as I heard a new version of Linux Mint has been released I downloaded the Cinnamon edition right away. Linux Mint is not restricted to their in house built Cinnamon desktop but also features the Xfce (not updated to the ’18’  release yet) and the MATE desktop. But I always was very interested in Cinnamon (I mean the desktop, yes, love the vegetable also ) and that’s all I’ve ever used with Linux Mint so I decided to use it here for the review also.



Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon Desktop



The Cinnamon flavor comes with Cinnamon desktop 3.0.6, Kernel 4.4, X.org 1.18.3 and is based on the Ubuntu 16.04 LTS core. The disc image size is about 1.7 GB. Linux Mint





Cinnamon desktop displaying its version (LM 18)


Cinnamon 18 will be supported up to 2021 with security fixes. UEFI is fully supported, but you need to turn off ‘Secure Boot’, otherwise you’re required to do some work.
I don’t have performance related data from a recent Linux Mint Cinnamon release, thus I decided to compare its performance with Ubuntu 16.04 LTS. However, when I was done reviewing Ubuntu 16.04 LTS and Ubuntu 16.04 Flavors comparison, I received a new laptop. So I decided to install Ubuntu 16.04 LTS on it before I installed LM 18 Cinnamon on the new laptop. Then I re-measured the performance related data because comparing two distributions that were used on two totally different hardware doesn’t make any sense. And as always, before I begin the Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon review, here’s brief description of the hardware details of the new laptop:



Intel Core i7-5500U, Hybrid GPU Setup (Intel Broadwell HD Graphics 5500, Nvidia 920M), 4GB RAM DDR3, Hybrid Permanent Storage Setup (Seagate 5400 RPM, 500 GB rotational disk and a Kingston 24 GB SSD), Qualcomm Atheros AR9565 Wireless Adapter, Realtek RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet Controller, Realtek ALC3236 Sound Card, LED Display (1366 x 768 resolution, 60 FPS/HZ). It's an Asus laptop (F302LJ-FN024H).



This laptop as you can see, includes two storage devices. One 500 GB rotational disk and another 24 GB SSD, both separate drives (not a 2-in-one type hybrid drive where a single controller controls both the SSD and the rotational disk). And since I don’t have a lot of SSD space remaining, and since I’ve installed the main operating system on the 24 GB SSD (I use it as the ‘root’ partition actually, the ‘Home’ partition is located on the rotational disk), I installed Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon into the conventional and the slower, rotational HDD instead.
As always, also remember that, after installing the OS, I boot(ed) into the OS 5-6 times for letting things to settle down (first time ‘wizards’ and background system services to be done with their setups) and then I disabled the Startup Welcome screen and the Update manager from running to keep the accuracy of the memory usage readings high. User auto-login was also enabled and I also added System Monitor shortcut to the task-bar. And only after measuring the performance related data (boot-up times, memory usage, power usage, system responsiveness, shutdown delay) I started to use the operating system and discover what’s new.
Also kindly remember that I’m using Linux Mint Cinnamon with a 2 year absence. Therefore, some of what I may say ‘new’ might already have had been there in the past.

The Installer, GRUB & Boot-Up Logo…

I’ve decided to skip both the installer, the boot-up logo & GRUB. First of all, LM 18 uses Ubuntu 16.04 LTS installer and I’m sure you all are familiar with it. Secondly, the GRUB and boot-up logo haven’t changed either. Therefore, I’ll go over to the Desktop straightaway.

 

The Desktop

 

Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon Desktop



Except for the new wallpaper, it’s a typical Cinnamon desktop UI where a Microsoft Window’s traditional looking desktop is presented (a task-bar at the bottom of the screen with a ‘XP’ type start-menu. Come on now, you know all these details ). The desktop right-click context menu has changed a bit though. It’s filled with couple of useful shortcuts, ‘Desktop Settings’ is a newly added shortcut if I’m not mistaken.



Desktop context menu (Linux Mint Cinnamon 18)



If you find it consists of too many shortcuts, then you can easily disable a few through the file manager -- Nemo. This is because some elements of the desktop (desktop icons and the right-click context menu) is controlled through the file manager. For that open the file manager and go to ‘Edit‘ -> ‘Plugins‘, then under ‘Actions‘ you can disable some of the items from being displayed on the desktop context menu.



Desktop context menu after customizing through Nemo (Linux Mint 18)



Nemo (a fork of GNOME’s file manager) also contains many useful features unlike the GNOME file manager. For instance, nowadays GNOME’s file manager doesn’t have a ‘Compact View’ option which I used to like quite a lot when viewing folders filled with files and other folders as it saves display space. Nemo however, still has it. Through the ‘Preferences‘ -> ‘Toolbar‘ section, you can also add/remove a few more features (‘open terminal’, ‘create new folder’ etc) into the main toolbar as well. And unlike the GNOME’s file manager, Nemo allows more customization options too.



Compact View and other tool-bar customization options in Nemo (Linux Mint 18)



One annoying issue I found while using the Cinnamon desktop is the ‘Window list Thumbnails’. Cinnamon displays a thumbnail of docked applications on the bottom task-bar when you move the mouse pointer over them. But the problem is, as long as you keep the mouse pointer over it, it never fades away! For instance, let’s say that I was using the text editor and moved mouse pointer over the terminal window on





Annoying window list thumbnails (Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon)


the task-bar to see a preview (let’s say I was running a command and wanted to see if it has been finished. Yes the thumbnails update in real-time). Then after looking at the thumbnail update, if I started to re-type on the text editor window without taking the mouse pointer away from the docked terminal window, the thumbnail stays there forever overlapping with the text editor. A major distraction. The only solution is to completely disable the thumbnails, but I quite like them. So one suggestion I would like to make to the Linux Mint developers is how about stop showing the thumbnails as soon as a user starts to use his/her keyboard, even if the mouse pointer is focused on a certain application window docked on the task-bar? That’s a better approach because if the keyboard starts receiving inputs, it means then the user focus is in somewhere else.
One of the other major changes of the Cinnamon 3.x desktop is that there is now a brand new theme called ‘Mint-Y’, although by default, the old ‘Mint-X’ is still used. From new icons to colors (icons, menu items etc) and to how the buttons look like on application windows, ‘Mint-Y’ brings major changes. It’s looks flat but still retains a subtle 3D look, a very modern looking theme. I like it a lot. The reason it isn’t applied by default is because it’s still in active development if I’m not mistaken.



New 'Mint-Y' theme of Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon
Mint-Y theme featuring on few user applications (Linux Mint 18)
Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon desktop with the Mint-Y theme



The ‘System Settings’ has always been quite impressive with Linux Mint as it gave access to so many customization options without compromising simplicity. This release is no exception, except, compared to my Linux Mint 17, now there are many more options, and under each settings window (‘Applets’, ‘Desktop Settings’, ‘Windows’, ‘Power Management’, ‘Notifications’ etc) options are categorized & listed under tabbed windows. This again has helped Linux Mint to retain its simplistic approach, yet still to present lots of customization options to the user.



Tabbed window approach to System Settings (Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon)




The Update Manager also has received a new option to easily set its behavior. By simply choosing between 3 available options, users can make Linux Mint Update Manager to:
  1. Update the system with stable versions of software
  2. Update the system with stable versions of software as above, but show whether the user would like to install additional updates which could lead to instability issues
  3. Update everything, and if something breaks, then you better had known how to fix it!


New Update Manager Settings page (Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon)



I quite liked this feature. The settings page alone looks very professional.

Introducing X-Apps
This is the other major change in Linux Mint 18, it’s called ‘X-Apps’. According to Linux Mint’s founder Clement, the reason for their existence is as follows:
Work started on Linux Mint 18. One important aspect is GNOME 3.18 (the project and all its components, not just the desktop environment), which includes GTK and many applications used primarily by Cinnamon, but also Xfce and to a lesser extent MATE. A lot has changed between version 3.10 (used in Linux Mint 17) and version 3.18. GTK itself and many of the GNOME applications now integrate better with GNOME Shell and look more native in that environment. The bad news, is that they now look completely out of place everywhere else….
… From a long term point of view, we knew this would become more and more of an issue but it was decided early that Cinnamon would not get its own applications, because it represented too much work and there were too few differences in application needs between Cinnamon, MATE and Xfce. It just made no sense to invest time in making “Cinnamon applications”. For similar reasons we invested very little time in developing MATE applications.
The idea of working on apps which would be generic, perfectly suited to run in both Cinnamon, MATE and Xfce (and possibly other desktop environments) made more sense. It’s an idea we’ve had for a while and with the start of a new Mint 18.x series the timing was right to get this project started.
Basically, X-Apps are a collection of existing GNOME (3.18) applications that are redesigned (patched) to work across three main flavors of Linux Mint: Cinnamon, MATE and Xfce. In other words, rather than developing these applications for each flavor individually (which’ll take a lot of human effort & time) they’ve centralized the development in such a way so that they can develop each application to work across all 3 flavors simultaneously.

Currently Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon edition ships with 4 X-Apps: xed (text editor), Xreader (document viewer), Xviewer (image viewer), Xplayer (video player). Again, they’re all existing GNOME applications but patched to work (mainly being displayed correctly without themes related issues etc) across all 3 flavors of Linux Mint.
Some Of the Applications Included:
Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon ships with updated software tools such as: Firefox 47.0, Thunderbird 38.7.2, GIMP 2.8.16, LibreOffice 5.1.2.2, Pix 1.0.5 (image organizer), Transmission 2.84, Banshee 2.6.3, mintinstall Software Manager 7.7.3, synaptic software manager 0.83. These are just a few to mention.
P.S: Unlike in Ubuntu 16.04 LTS where it struggled to install ‘.deb’ files by default, in Linux Mint 18 they can be installed without any issues because the ‘.deb’ files are handled by a separate utility (gdebi -- Ubuntu doesn’t include it by default).



Installing a .deb package in Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon - It works!



Multimedia Playback, Adobe Flash and Skype
Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon doesn’t ship with proprietary multimedia codecs by default, although it used to include them in the past. However, there is a dedicated software (GUI) that can be used to install all the necessary proprietary multimedia codecs easily. Just type in ‘codecs’ into the start-menu and you’ll find it.
Linux Mint 18 also includes a command-line tool for creating an offline-multimedia codec pack too! You can use this command-line utility on a Linux Mint 18 live DVD/USB drive on a computer that has internet access to create a codec pack, and then use that to install those codecs on a computer that’s running Linux Mint 18 that doesn’t have an internet connection. To do that, once boot(ed) using the live media, open the terminal and enter the below command:


apt download mint-meta-codecs



Offline multimedia codec pack created by Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon



This will create a compressed file called ‘mint-meta-codecs.tgz’ on the Home folder of the live DVD/USB. And on a computer where you have installed Linux Mint but don’t have internet access, you can simply extract the content of this file and simply run the ‘install.sh’ file (just double click on it and choose ‘Run in Terminal’) to install the codecs. I would like to take this opportunity to give my thanks to Linux Mint developers on their broader understanding of their user base. I’m more than sure that thousands of people all around the world will appreciate it. Not everyone is so fortunate to have high speed internet connections to their computers, but sadly some core GNU/Linux developers don’t exactly see things in this light. Their ‘vision’ is very narrow.
I installed VLC manually for my multimedia needs and so far I’ve never come across any issues while playing videos (both on my Intel and Nvidia GPU). I use Google Chrome as my web browser nowadays (Chrome isn’t included by default) and Chrome comes with the latest version of Adobe Flash. I’ve been watching many Flash videos online for the past few days on Linux Mint on Google Chrome and haven’t come across any issues. It too has been quite satisfying.



Skype running on Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon



I’m not a heavy Skype user, but I’ve been using the official but outdated Skype on Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon and except for that floating tool bar thing (again, I’m no avid Skyper, don’t know what’s that thing called), Skype too has been flawless. From system tray icon to audio/video (incoming and outgoing video feed from the webcam) calls, everything worked extremely well. About the floating tool-bar, I can’t move it around or use any of its functions either (nothing happens when I click on its various buttons -- close, stop the call etc).



Teamviewer 11 running on Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon



I also had to install Teamviewer to troubleshoot a Windows 8.1 laptop that belongs to one of my aunts and it too worked without any issues whatsoever. So all in all, Linux Mint 18 has been able to easily satisfy my everyday needs as an end-user.

Performance Comparison

Now allow me to share with you the performance related data. First I’ll start off with the Boot-up Speed.

Boot-Up Speed

Boot-Up speed means from the moment I hit enter at the GRUB boot-menu till the desktop gets fully loaded. Although since I always keep the Wi-Fi turned on connected to my Wi-Fi router, I don’t necessarily wait till the Wi-Fi connection is ready, if the rest of the startup apps of the desktop are loaded. If the rest of the desktop is fully loaded, then I simply stop measuring (I use the timer app on my Android phone for measuring the time) despite the current state of the Wi-Fi connection.



LM 18 Cinnamon vs Ubuntu 16.04 LTS - Boot Up Times Graph



As you can see both Ubuntu 16.04 LTS and Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon scored quite similar speeds while booting, although, Linux Mint 18 was about 4.4% faster (1.5 seconds). This could be ‘explained’ when you look at the memory usage readings.

Memory Usage Upon Desktop loading

Unlike with Boot-up Speed measurement, I wait till all the aspects of the desktop is fully loaded (Wi-Fi connected, all the startup apps fully loaded, startup notifications finished etc) before I measure the memory usage. I also had previously added the system monitor shortcut to the task-bar because if I was to open it by navigating or searching through the start-menu that would’ve increased the memory usage reading thus negatively affecting the reading. Once I open the System Monitor, I also waited about 10-20 seconds to let things settle down as well. Only after that I noted the current memory usage reading and wrote it down (this is how I’ve been doing it in all these years actually).



LM 18 Cinnamon vs Ubuntu 16.04 LTS - Memory Usage Graph


As you can see, Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon consumed 32.3% less memory compared to Ubuntu 16.04 LTS. In other words, while booting, Linux Mint 18 had 32.3% (about 205 MiB) less data  to be copied over to RAM from the main storage (because that’s what happens when an operating system boots) and that may explain why Mint was slightly faster to boot.

 

CPU Usage at Idle

 

CPU Usage at idle (Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon)



On both operating systems, the CPU usage at idle (meaning no actively running user applications -- web browsers, text editors, music managers etc) was extremely low (about 1% at most). And on many occasions it even reached 0% as well. Impressive!

Power Usage at Idle

For measuring power I use a tool called ‘powerstat‘. I close all the other user applications before running this command-line tool and leave the computer alone. I also make sure to have set the screen brightness to its maximum level, disable the screen turning OFF and Screensaver from running. Bluetooth is also OFF and Wi-Fi is turned ON, connected to the router. The video device (GPU) used while measuring the power was the Intel GPU. If I had used Nvidia 920M the readings would’ve easily been much higher.
Here’s are two screenshots from Ubuntu 16.04 LTS and Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon:



Ubuntu 16.04 LTS power usage at idle
Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon Power usage (idle)


Here’s the graph I created based on the gathered data:


LM 18 Cinnamon vs Ubuntu 16.04 LTS - Power Usage Graph



They’re pretty much identical, although Linux Mint 18 did do slightly better. According to my notes, I was able to use the laptop for about 4.5 hours with screen brightness set to 15%-25% (I only use it indoors) and using the Intel GPU for primarily using for browsing web (including for writing a portion of this Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon review), also took a Skype call for 1 hour and 30 minutes (only used the webcams from both ends for about 40 minutes), ran Teamviewer once, and used VLC to watch some local videos on the HDD (when doing that I had turned OFF Wi-Fi).
I also installed a power usage reducer (optimizer) called TLP (sudo apt-get install tlp) and as you can see from the below screenshot, it was actually able to reduce the power usage of Linux Mint 18 by around 21.5% which is a lot!, as far as power usage is concerned.



Power Usage at Idle after install TLP (Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon)

 

 

Hardware Recognition

As I said in the beginning, this is a brand new laptop and unlike my previous one which I hand picked, had almost all of its hardware being ‘linux friendly’. This one however has one or two that could give me some trouble. Those will be the FocalTech touch pad, Qualcomm Wi-Fi adapter and the Nvidia 920M GPU (or the whole hybrid GPU setup).






Driver Manager (Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon)



But luckily, all of these hardware were recognized by Linux Mint 18. I always like to use the proprietary GPU driver for the Nvidia 920M GPU. Installing it was so easy because Linux Mint ships with the driver manager that Ubuntu comes with.
Another added advantage of Linux Mint 18 was that it comes pre-installed with an applet that once you’ve installed the proprietary GPU driver for the Nvidia or AMD/ATI (Intel GPUs release open-source drivers which are included by default with the Kernel so no need to install them manually), you can switch between the two by clicking on the applet that’s running on the system tray area, although that still requires you to log out from the system. It also shows the currently active GPU as well.



Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon desktop's applet for switching between GPUs



Wi-Fi and Blutooth adapters were all properly configured and Linux Mint 18 was able to correctly restore the previously set status (ON/OFF) when loading the desktop. The FocalTech touch-pad seems to have had some issues with the Kernel in the near past, but it worked well by default on both operating systems. However, when the laptop recovers from Sleep (suspend), the touch-pad refuses to work. I tried many of the tips available online (removing the kernel module and re-inserting it) but none of it has worked so far. The only way to recover from it is to reboot the laptop.
So far, I’ve also never seen any core system utility or any user application crashes on both these operating systems either. So other than the touch-pad related issue, all the rest of the hardware (display screen, audio etc) and software has worked excellently on both operating systems.

System Responsiveness

It’s the main storage device of your computer that acts as the bottleneck when it comes to performance because it is one of the most important components of your computer (because it holds all of your data), but it is also one of the most slowest. Therefore, if an operating systems fails to intelligently manage the main storage device (especially when it is busy -- too many read/write requests), then that can lead to many performance related issues. This is also why operating systems tend to be horribly unresponsiveness when the main storage device is under stress. Therefore, one of the best ways of measuring the quality of an operating system is to actually make the main storage device quite busy and then to observe the type of responsiveness it delivers.
So what I usually do is very simple. I copy a file that’s about 1.5-1.6 GB within two locations of the logged in user’s Home folder. And just after as I’ve initiated the file copy process, I try to play a multimedia file (here I used VLC that I manually installed), and then try to open up a few programs through the start-menu by searching (this adds more ‘pressure’ on the hard disk because when you search for something it increases hard disk read requests). And then I also try to open a folder filled with a reasonable amount of files thorough the file manager, again to put as much ‘pressure’ on the main storage device as possible. While all this is happening, I also observe the mouse pointer’s behavior. For what? The answer is simple. Have you observed that when your computer becomes slow due to a busy hard disk, under sever conditions, the mouse pointer has a tendency to lose its responsiveness (its movements loses the smooth fluid nature that it previously had)? Thus, it’s also another pointer of the responsiveness of the operating system that you are testing.
So my judgment is as follows. Before the file copying finished, if the operating system was able to open most of the programs I tried to open, if the multimedia playback was able to keep on going without too many major interruptions and all the while, if the mouse sensitivity was not severely lost (because we’re talking about really stressing the storage device thus some lost is assumed), then I consider the operating system to be a responsive one. So I carried out the same test under both operating systems, and what was the end result?
Below image is just an illustration, no need to get too excited !



System Responsiveness test - Illustration (Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon)



It was really good under Ubuntu 16.04 LTS, but under Linux Mint 18 it was even better, it was superb! This is not surprising, because Linux Mint has always been an amazingly responsive under heavy disk stress. Both operating systems were able to open most of the programs I tried to open, play the multimedia file without any interruptions actually, didn’t lose the mouse pointer sensitivity at all, although file manager took a couple of seconds to open the location which is totally fine by me. So all in all, I was extremely pleased with Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon’s responsiveness.

Shutdown Delay

LM 18 Cinnamon vs Ubuntu 16.04 LTS - Shutdown Delay Graph


As you can see, Ubuntu 16.04 LTS is the clear winner here where it lead Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon by being 76% more faster. However, I don’t put a whole lot of empathize on the shutdown delay unless the delay is quite long, but 6.7 seconds of shutdown time is more than tolerable.

Final Words

Even after all these years, Linux Mint 18 Cinnamon is still lean on memory usage, boots relatively fast (compared to many other distributions), power efficient, extremely responsive, ran on the hardware very well (except for the touch-pad related issue which is not exactly Linux Mint’s fault), very stable and shutdown time was also quite good. As mentioned, the desktop is very easy to use, gives you a lot of options to customize, yet retains a sense of simplicity. And other major concerns of an everyday user nowadays such as Skype, web browsing, Adobe Flash playback, Teamviewer, multimedia playback etc were all extremely satisfying from my end.
I’ve witnessed a lot of respect for this GNU/Linux distribution over on many occasions, and this release is no exception. My verdict is simple: “This is how it should be done!” Thank you for reading (if you’ve made it this far) and please go to this page for the download instructions and to read the release notes (make sure to read it). Good luck.

Source: https://www.hecticgeek.com/2016/07/linux-mint-18-review/

September 3, 2017

3 Graphical User Interface Applications using FFmpeg

FFmpeg is a freeware video and audio encoder. There are versions for Windows, Linux, and MacOS.

FFmpeg GUIs
A GUI is a graphical user interface that makes it easy for a user to work with FFmpeg. Since FFmpeg is open-source, various developers have built software to utilize it with simple GUIs.


Benefits to Using a GUI
Since FFmpeg is used through a command line interface (CLI), there is a relatively steep learning curve for users who are unfamiliar with this type of interface. Using a CLI requires that the user understand how to write commands with the proper language and syntax. Software that provides a GUI makes using FFmpeg as easy as clicking a few buttons and setting a few parameters.
Examples:

Limitations to Using a GUI
Using a GUI allows the user to jump right into FFmpeg, but it obfuscates what’s happening “under the hood.” Some users may want to know the FFmpeg command generated by using the GUI, and that is not always accessible. Also, GUIs are not always up to date with the latest version of FFmpeg.

Source: https://github.com/amiaopensource/ffmpeg-amia-wiki/wiki/3)-Graphical-User-Interface-Applications-using-FFmpeg

Other helpful links:
Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MPV7JXTWPWI

Windows - http://ffmpeg.zeranoe.com/builds/

Download FFMPEG: https://www.ffmpeg.org/download.html

Download PeaZip: http://www.peazip.org/ Full

FFMPEG Documentation: https://ffmpeg.org/ffmpeg.html

FFMPEG Filter Documentation: https://ffmpeg.org/ffmpeg-filters.html

All FFMPEG features: https://ffmpeg.org/documentation.html

 

How to Play DVDs and Blu-rays on Linux

Commercial DVDs and Blu-ray discs are encrypted. The Digital Rights Management (DRM) is designed to prevent you from ripping them, copying them, and watching them on unsupported players. You can get around this protection to watch DVDs and Blu-rays on Linux, but it’ll take some tweaking.
DVD discs work well, and all DVDs should work after you install a single library. Blu-rays are much more hit-and-miss, and only some will work–particularly older Blu-ray discs. Also, both of these require that you have the right disc drive in your PC–a DVD drive if you’re looking to just play DVDs, and a Blu-ray drive if you’re looking to play DVDs and Blu-ray discs.

How to Play DVDs on Linux with VLC

The free VLC media player can play DVDs on Linux, but it requires a special library known as libdvdcss. This library effectively breaks the CSS encryption on DVDs, allowing you to watch them. The status of this library is legally unclear–it’s potentially illegal under the DMCA in the USA–so Linux distributions don’t generally include it in their software repositories.
But this is actually the same method many Windows users use. Windows 8 and 10 no longer include DVD playback functionality, and the standard advice is to download and install VLC. The Windows builds of VLC have libdvdcss built-in, so you just need to download, install, and start watching. Linux is a tad more complicated.
NOTE: You can also buy a licensed copy of Fluendo DVD Player for $25 on Ubuntu’s Software Center, but most people won’t want to bother. You can get DVDs for free if you’re willing to take just a few extra steps.
On Ubuntu 12.04 to Ubuntu 15.04, you can install libdvdcss by opening a terminal window and running the following commands:


sudo apt-get install libdvdread4
sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread4/install-css.sh


On Ubuntu 15.10 and up, run the following command instead. Follow the instructions that appear in the terminal to install libdvdcss:


sudo apt-get install libdvd-pkg


For other Linux distributions, perform a web search for “install libdvdcss” and the name of your Linux distribution. You’ll find instructions and third-party repositories that should make the process easy.





You can then install VLC from the Software Center if it isn’t installed already. (Alternatively, you can run sudo apt-get install vlc to install it from the command line.)
Once installed, insert your DVD and launch VLC. Click the “Media” menu in VLC, select “Open Disc,” and select the “DVD” option. VLC should automatically find a DVD disc you’ve inserted and play it back. If that doesn’t work, you may need to specify the device path of your DVD drive here.
If it doesn’t appear to work, try restarting your computer. That should ensure VLC is correctly using libdvdcss.



How to Play (Some) Blu-rays on Linux with VLC

Blu-rays are a bit more complicated. While there are technically paid DVD players you can purchase for Linux, there’s no officially licensed way to play back Blu-rays on Linux.
The older your Blu-ray disc is, the more likely it will work. Newer Blu-ray discs use BD+ disc encryption, while older ones used the more easily bypassed AACS encryption. Newer Blu-ray discs also blacklist some of the known keys used to play older Blu-ray discs in this way. If you have a very new disc, you may not get it to play at all.
To install VLC and its Blu-ray support on Ubuntu, open a terminal window and run the following commands in order. You can copy and paste them into a terminal window using your mouse.


sudo apt-get install vlc libaacs0 libbluray-bdj libbluray1
mkdir -p ~/.config/aacs/
cd ~/.config/aacs/ && wget http://vlc-bluray.whoknowsmy.name/files/KEYDB.cfg
 
 
If you’re using another Linux distribution, you’ll want to install VLC and the appropriate libaacs0, libbluray-bdj, libbluray1 libraries. You can then run the second two commands to download the KEYDB.cfg file into the configuration directory.





You can now open VLC and attempt to open a Blu-ray disc like you would a DVD. Click the “Media” menu, select “Open Disc,” and select “Blu-ray.” Leave the “No disc menus” option checked.
If you see a message saying the disc isn’t decrypted and you need a key, or a message saying the AACS host certificate has been revoked, your Blu-ray disc is too new and isn’t supported.



 

How to Play Blu-rays on Linux with MakeMKV and VLC

If you need to play a wider variety of Blu-ray discs, there’s another method that people report more success with: you can use MakeMKV to decode the Blu-ray and VLC to play it as it’s being decoded.
MakeMKV isn’t an open-source tool. It’s proprietary software with a free 30-day trial, and will theoretically cost $50 to continue using after that. However, MakeMKV is free to use while in beta, and it’s been in beta for three years. You’ll just have to check this forum post every month and refresh the beta key to continue using MakeMKV, assuming it stays in beta.
Another forum post provides instructions for installing MakeMKV on Linux. However, Ubuntu users can install MakeMKV using the much easier apt-get command. Currently, the most up-to-date PPA we’ve found for this is the makemkv-beta PPA. To install MakeMKV from this repository, open a terminal and run the following commands:


sudo add-apt-repository ppa:heyarje/makemkv-beta
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install makemkv-bin makemkv-oss
 
 
You’ll also need VLC installed, as described above. Once you have both programs, open the MakeMKV application from your menu, select your Blu-ray disc drive, and click the “Stream” icon on the toolbar. You’ll be given a local address.





Open VLC, click the “Media” menu, click “Open Network Stream,” and provide that address. It will look similar to the following address:


http://localhost:51000/stream/title0.ts


The main movie is usually either “title0” or “title1”–choose the one that looks larger in MakeMKV.





MakeMKV will decode the Blu-ray video and stream it to VLC. Despite the word “stream,” this all happens on your computer, no internet required. VLC plays the video, but MakeMKV is doing the heavy lifting in the background.

Playing Blu-ray discs is both unreliable and a hassle. Only people who have actual commercial Blu-ray discs in their hands will have to go through this trouble–if you’ve ripped the Blu-ray discs on another computer, or downloaded the ripped files, you should be able to play them in VLC just like any other video.
In an age where you can get Netflix to work on Linux just by downloading Chrome, or use a quick tweak to make Hulu or Amazon Instant Video work, this is a lot of work to play a legitimate disc. It’s possible, but you’re better off getting your media in other ways on Linux, or using another device to play Blu-rays if you must use those physical discs.

Source: https://www.howtogeek.com/240487/how-to-play-dvds-and-blu-rays-on-linux/