December 22, 2022

How to upgrade Linux Mint 20.3 to 21.1

Linux Mint 21.1 has just been released. For those that want to upgrade to the new release, it is a simple matter. Below are the steps from a helpful article.

Upgrade to Linux Mint 21 and 21.1 from Mint 20.3 [Complete Guide]

This guide gives you all the information you need to Upgrade to Linux Mint 21 series from Linux 20.3.

Linux Mint 21 “Vanessa” and 21.1 “Vera” was recently released with the latest Ubuntu 22.04 base and other additional features. If you are running the earlier Linux Mint 20.3, now it is possible to do a major version upgrade using the graphical tool by Linux Mint.

But before you upgrade, you need to do some housekeeping because major version upgrades always come with a fair amount of risk.

That said, make sure of the following before performing the upgrade.

Before you perform the upgrade, remember the followings:

  • The current version upgrade is only possible from Linux Mint 20.3 to Linux Mint 21 and 21.1.
  • What does this mean? If you are running Linux Mint 20.2 or Linux Mint 20.1, you can not directly upgrade to 21. Instead, you need to perform sudo apt update and sudo apt upgrade to reach 20.3. And then follow the steps.

Things to do before the Upgrade Attempt

  • Open the Update Manager and make sure your system is up to date until Linux Mint 20.3.
  • Use TImeshift to create a system restore point after you apply all the pending updates in the above step. If something happens, you can always restore it to this point in time.
  • Take a backup of all of your home, downloads, documents, pictures and videos folders.
  • Disable any third-party PPA that you may have added. You can find those in the System Settings > Software Sources > PPAs or Additional Repositories tabs.
  • Make sure you have a minimum of 10 GB to 15 GB of free disk space in the root file system.
  • (Optional) Prepare a LIVE USB of Linux Mint 20.3 if you cannot boot it after a failed upgrade. It will help to restore via Timeshift.
  • (Optional) Finally, do a fresh reboot before you follow the steps.
  • Ensure you have a stable internet connection and have around 1.5 hours to give attention to the upgrade process.

Upgrade to Linux Mint 21, 21.1 from Linux Mint 20.3 [Graphical Method]

  • Open a terminal window and run the following command to install mintupgrade utility. This is a GUI-based program which Linux Mint modified for major version upgrades. It makes the upgrade easier for general users who are not comfortable with the command prompt.
sudo apt install mintupgrade
  • Now, from the command, run the program.
sudo mintupgrade
  • You should see the following prompt, which tells you the ‘upgrade to Linux Mint 21’ is available. Click on Let’s Go. If you are running this after December 20th, then you should see a prompt ‘upgrade to Linux mint 21.1 Vera’.
Upgrade to Linux Mint 21 from 20.3 via mintupgrade tool
Upgrade to Linux Mint 21 from 20.3 via the mintupgrade tool
  • The tool will verify your system for any problems and tell you to fix them. If you see a FIX button, click on that to resolve the error (after reading the details in the window).
  • It will also give you a list of packages which require a downgrade.
  • In the end, you should see a summary of the packages to be downloaded or removed.
  • Press OK to start the upgrade process.
Final Upgrade summary
Final Upgrade summary
  • The program first downloads the packages. Then start to upgrade each one of the packages. Wait for the process to finish for close to an hour (based on your standard internet speed).
Upgrading to Mint 21
Upgrading to Mint 21
  • After the download and installation, you should see a successful upgrade prompt.
Successful Upgrade
Successful Upgrade
  • Now, reboot the system, and you should be greeted with brand new Linux Mint 21.

Things to remember during the Upgrade

  • Usually, the upgrade process is smooth and should not be an issue. It takes around 1 hour and 15 minutes for a base install.
  • The upgrade process may seem stalled sometime up to ~10 minutes, and you may not see any visible progress on the screen other than the progress animation.
  • So, you need to wait until it completes all the steps. Alternatively, you can also watch the status in the terminal window.
  • If you end up with a broken upgrade system, you can boot from a LIVE Mint USB/CD and restore your system with Timeshift backup.

If the upgrade fails, you may try for a new upgrade via this official guide.

Post Upgrade Steps

  • If you have disabled the third-party PPAs, enable them and do a system update check. You can find the third-party PPs at the System Settings > Software Sources > PPAs or Additional Repositories tabs.
  • Verify whether your documents, pictures and videos are present.
  • Also, check if your browser add-ons and extensions are working fine.
  • For this version, you should also check whether your Printer and Bluetooth are working. Because Mint 21 introduces IPP (a new protocol for printing) and a new Bluetooth manager.
  • Finally, you may want to check out the Top 10 features of Linux Mint 21 before you start using it.

Wrapping Up

It is always better to do a fresh installation if you can afford it. However, upgrades are also acceptable.

I hope this guide helped you to do the Linux Mint upgrade. If you face any issues, let me know using the comment box below.


December 20, 2022

How to dual boot Linux and Win10 on a 4TB hard drive

As our hard drives continue to get larger, I have the need to dual boot these newer larger drives. With Windows NTFS file size limitation of 2TB on partitions, care must be taken to format and partition with Windows 10/11 and Linux. Only desktops/laptops with Bios that support UEFI support 4TB+ drives, so make sure your PC supports this. Legacy Bios booting is not supported.

4TB Drive Goal: Win10 Drive=1TB, Linux Drive=1TB, Shared Drive=2TB

Ready the Hard Drive:

1. Convert 4TB drive to GPT with Diskpart (data loss)

There is a built-in tool called Diskpart, which can convert 4TB hard drive to GPT with several lines of command. Here are the detailed steps.

✍Note: this method needs to clean your disk before converting, so if it is not a new hard drive or has important data on it, you have to back up the disk beforehand.

Step 1. Press “WIN+R”, type “CMD” and press Enter to open the command prompt. Then, input 

"diskpart" and hit Enter.

Step 2. Type the following commands, remember press Enter after you input each one.

    list disk

    select disk n (n means the drive letter, replace it with your 4TB drive letter)

    clean (clear all partitions on the selected disk)

    convert gpt

When the “DiskPart successfully converted the selected disk to GPT format” shows on the screen, type “exit” and press “Enter” to leave the program, and check if the rest of the capacity is restored.


How to install Linux Mint alongside Windows
By Abraham

The user-friendliness of the Mint desktop makes it one of the most prevalent Ubuntu-based variants. Besides, it has an easy-to-use interface making it a charm for beginners. Moreover, Mint can run at full speed on even the most outdated computers. Cinnamon, MATE, and Xfce are the three most popular desktop environments on the Mint download website, with Cinnamon being the flagship version.

Linux Mint is an excellent option if you’re wondering where to begin your Linux journey. See the magic when you install Linux Mint on a computer that can barely run Windows.

Dual-booting Linux Mint with Windows

In this article tutorial, we’ll look at how to get Linux Mint up and run quickly. In addition, we’ll look at how you may run it alongside Windows 10 in a dual-boot configuration.

Note: We don’t advocate messing with your computer’s hard disk unless you’re an expert. Don’t neglect to back up your data before you begin!


  1. An 8GB or more flash memory device
  2. Free disk space (at least 100GB)
  3. Patience

If your laptop or desktop already has Windows 10, you must disable the following options in the UEFI menu:

  • Fast Boot and
  • Secure Boot options.

If the machine doesn’t already have an operating system installed, install Microsoft Windows first and then proceed with the installation of Linux Mint.

As a newbie, Linux Mint is one of the better options. Linux Mint is simple to use, and getting it up and running isn’t difficult either. This guide will teach us how to install Linux Mint alongside Windows 10.

Here are a few things you need to know about installing Linux Mint before getting started. You may begin using any Linux-based operating system in a few different ways, as shown below:

  1. Virtualization: You may run a Linux operating system on a Windows environment using a virtual machine. Using this method, you may gain a feel for Linux safely and securely. You may want to avoid this if you have less than 4 GB of RAM.
  2. Linux live version: Consider running Linux off a USB stick instead of a hard drive: You may boot Linux from a USB or DVD using this approach. In most cases, this process takes a long time, and your Linux system modifications aren’t stored. If you only want to get a feel of Linux, this is a great option.
  3. Remove Linux and Windows: It is possible to delete both Windows and Linux if you back up your data and have a Windows recovery CD on hand or are determined not to reinstall Windows in the future.
  4. Concurrently install and run Linux and Windows: Dual booting Linux and Windows is a term for this procedure. Rather than beginning from scratch, you can use an existing Windows PC to run the Linux operating system. There is a choice between Windows and Linux when your computer starts up. This may necessitate changing the boot order or partitioning the hard drive. Using Linux and Windows together on one system might be confusing for those just getting started, but there is no better approach.

Before starting, there is one question we must answer that most newbies and existing users are concerned about.

Will dual-booting slow down your system?

This question has been trending in the Linux Users Group for quite a while. Hence, this section’s essence is to provide a clear answer. To put it plainly: No. Your PC will not be decelerated by running Linux and Windows simultaneously.

The only hiccup is that you receive 10 seconds of buffer time to choose between Linux and Windows when you power up your computer. You may use Linux or Windows as your sole operating system after booting into any of them. Your system’s usefulness is unaffected. Therefore, dual-booting does not slow down your computer.

Installing Linux Mint alongside Windows 10

Recommended precautions

Before we examine how to dual boot Linux Mint and Windows, I’d like to provide you with a few more safety tips:

  1. Back up your information: Disk partitions will be on your to-do list. This isn’t a significant deal, but you might lose data if you accidentally touch the wrong partition. To be safe, I recommend regularly backing up your vital data to an external hard drive or cloud storage service such as Google Drive or Amazon Cloud Storage, whichever you choose.
  2. A boot repair disk is a must-have. You can use a boot repair CD to fix a broken boot. You can construct a boot repair disk from an additional USB or CD if you have one around.
  3. Make sure you have a Windows live or recovery CD on hand: You may utilize the Windows CD to reinstall Windows if your boot gets screwed up and you wind up with an unbootable PC.

I’m not trying to discourage you, and I hope you understand that. This section prepares you for the worst-case situation.

For machines with Windows 10 already installed, please refer to this article. Linux Mint is being installed on a Windows machine, not the other way round.

Making a USB Drive Bootable with Rufus

The first step is creating a USB drive that can boot into the distribution. Rufus is the program we’ll be using in this article to create a bootable USB drive, which you can get here.

  1. Linux Mint may be downloaded from this page. Once you have downloaded it, save it as an iso file on your hard drive.
    linux mint download page
    Linux Mint Download page
  2. Plugin your USB flash drive to your computer’s USB port and open Rufus
  3. Rufus will instantly recognize your flash drive. Choose the “Select” option.
  4. Navigate to your desktop and pick the ISO file. Now, click on the start button.
  5. If asked, allow Rufus to obtain Syslinux and wait for the formatting procedure to complete.

Creating a Linux Mint partition

  1. In the Windows Start menu’s search field, type “partitions” and select the first result that says “Create and Format Hard disk Partitions.”
  2. Your computer’s partitions and disks will be visible. Since my laptop contains both an SSD and a hard drive, this window may appear differently on your machine. I’m going to install Mint on the HDD.
  3. To shrink the volume of your drive, right-click on it and select “Shrink Volume.” Next, enter the desired quantity of shrinkage (in my instance, 100GB) and click “Shrink.”
    partition hard disk
    Partition hard disk

    This will result in the creation of an empty segment on the drive. You will now notice a partition labeled “Unallocated.”

  4. At the moment, Connect the USB device to which you flashed Mint, restart your computer, and continue pressing F2, F5, F8, F10, or F12 to access the BIOS. The key used to access BIOS is OEM-specific; therefore, try another if one key does not work. It’s F2 in my situation (for Lenovo).

BIOS Configuration

  1. Ensure that secure boot is deactivated under security.
    disable secure boot
    Disable Secure Boot

    Ascertain that UEFI is selected in the boot options.

    uefi boot mode
    UEFI boot mode

    While not every interface may look precisely like this, the terminology will almost certainly be the same. Save your preferences and leave BIOS (typically, the functions of each button are available under the BIOS options, as seen in both images).

Installing and booting Linux Mint

Here are some of the tutorial’s most critical phases to ensure you don’t miss anything.

1. Entering the Boot Entering the Boot

Turn on your computer, and before the manufacturer’s logo shows, press the OEM-specific key to boot into Boot choices. Look for the key on Google or in your PC’s manual, or press F2, F5, F8, F10, or F12. The menu will appear as follows.

boot manager
Boot Manager

2. Navigate and key in

As you can see in the following image, your USB drive will be displayed last, as I’m using an SD card in an SDHC adaptor. Pressing Enter brings you to the Linux Mint desktop. You may experiment with Mint before installing it.

linux mint
Linux Mint

3. Launch the program “Install Linux Mint.”

On the desktop, look for the “Install Linux Mint Application.” And fire it up

install linux mint
Install Linux Mint

4. Configure the language preferences

Configure the keyboard and operating system language selections until you reach the “Installation Type” option.

language preferences
Language preferences

5. Choose “something else.”

Continue your installation adventure by selecting the “Something else” option. Alternatively, you may choose “Erase everything and install Mint” if you have previously backed up all of your files.

something else
Something else

Note: If Windows Boot Manager is identified automatically, you can install Linux Mint alongside it. This option guarantees that the installer partitions the hard drive automatically without causing data loss.

The second choice, “Erase the drive and install Linux Mint,” should be disregarded for dual-booting purposes because it is potentially harmful and will wipe your disk clean.

Select the “Something else” option and click the Continue button to proceed with a more flexible partition plan.

6. Additional partitions!

Phew! It’s been a hard road here so far; you don’t want to give up now, do you? Four more steps, and you’ll have Linux Mint all to yourself. Remember how much space we saved by installing Mint in Windows? First, locate a partition called “Free Space” in the list of partitions. Then, create new partitions by double-clicking on them.

additionall partitions
Additional partitions

7. Root

The Root directory is where your system’s critical components are kept. Consider it to be Windows’ “C: Drive.”

The minimum space suggested for root is 30GB (considering we only have 100GB space to use). Select “/” from the list of Mount points. Assemble everything precisely, as shown in the image.

root partition
Root partition

8. Home

Home is where most of your downloaded items and folders will be stored. In our situation, the bare minimum suggested space for the Home sector is 60GB. Therefore, ensure that “/home” is selected from the list of mount locations.


9. Swap

If you have below 2GB of RAM, swap memory is required. To begin, swap memory is utilized when your RAM runs out of space, allowing you to continue working.


Note: The swap partition is now ready to be created. What size swap partition should be used for the Linux Mint installation.

The answer is dependent on your RAM capacity, your requirements, accessible disk space, and whether or not you want to employ hibernation. You may like to consider the following suggestion:

  • RAM less than two gigabytes: Swap should be twice the amount of RAM.
  • RAM between 2 and 4 GB: Swap should equal the RAM capacity.
  • RAM between 6 and 8 gigabytes: Swap should be more than RAM
  • RAM greater than 8 GB: Swap should be at least half the RAM.

Avoid spending an excessive amount of time contemplating the swap. It is advantageous for computers with little memory. The less swap space used by a machine with more than 8 GB of RAM and an SSD, the better.

Swap files are used in newer versions of Linux Mint to create a custom file in the root directory and use it as the swap area. A system can have both a swap partition and a swap file.

10. How to create an EFI partition

EFI saves your Grub, enabling you to boot into Windows or Mint during the boot process. The suggested minimum amount of space to assign is 500MB.

create efi partition
Create EFI Partition
11. The final step!

After creating the partitions, ensure that you choose the Root partition (it will be highlighted) and click the “Install Now” option.

The installation process usually takes up to 30 minutes, dependent on your hard drive’s speed. After that, you’ll be prompted to reboot, and after the process, you’ll have a dual-boot machine with Windows and Linux Mint installed.

installer running
Installer running

After rebooting, the system will initially boot into Grub, with Linux Mint as the first boot choice. After ten seconds, the machine will automatically launch Linux Mint. Additionally, you may direct the device to boot into Windows or Linux at this point.

The Grub boot loader is disabled by default on PCs with more recent UEFI firmware, and the system boots directly into Windows.

To boot into Linux after a restart, you must hit the special function boot key and then pick the operating system you wish to start.

Navigate to the UEFI settings, choose your preferred operating system, and save the changes to alter the default boot order. Then, consult the vendor’s handbook to see whether special function keys are needed to boot or enter UEFI settings.

After the system has finished loading, log in with the credentials generated during the installation procedure.

That is all! You have now successfully installed Linux Mint on your computer. You’ll find the Linux Mint ecosystem to be extremely strong, quick, versatile, pleasant, simple to use, pre-installed with the majority of applications necessary by a typical user, and relatively stable.


That concludes our how to install Linux Mint tutorial. Pat yourself on the back if you’ve made it this far, and for those who are still stuck in the process, don’t hesitate to get in touch with us with the issue(s) you’re having, and we’ll do our best to assist you. Thank you for reading.

November 10, 2022

11 Best Linux Mint Themes

 Theming is one of the best ways to refresh your experience of your Linux system. Themes add a whole new experience to your experience, be it an icon theme or a full-fledged theme. In fact, there are already a number of available themes for almost all the distros that offer great versatility and style to the system.  Today, we’ll have a look at some of the finest Linux Mint themes.

Before we get into the list of themes, there’s a thing to keep in mind. There are 2 ways you can customize your system – with suitable wallpapers and modifying the look of the system. If you’re looking for some cool, mind-blowing wallpapers, you have to find them on your own as it depends explicitly on the user’s mind.  Here, we’ll be listing a handful of the system modifying themes.


This theme is a pretty awesome one. Canta is compatible with all the major desktop environments including the ones like Xfce, GNOME, Unity and all the other GTK 2 and GTK 3 based ones. The theme is also suitable for Linux Mint.  This theme is a flat, material design that offers both a cool window look and icon pack. Let’s install it in our system.

At first, make sure that your system comes up with all the necessary dependencies. Run the following command:

sudo apt install git gtk2-engines-murrine gtk-engines-pixbuf

After everything is set, get the theme from GitHub:

git clone

Run the installation of the theme:

cd ~/Canta-theme/
sudo chmod +x

sudo ./

Arc Theme

Do you love minimalistic yet AWESOME themes? Then you’ll definitely love Arc theme. In fact, this is one of the most popular themes that the community rejoices.

The theme is so popular that even the official repository of Ubuntu supports it. Linux Mint is based on Ubuntu, so it’s nice and easy to let APT take care of the theme. Run the following command:

sudo apt install arc-theme


This is another theme that depends on the GTK engine. It’s a slim, material theme that provides a great eye comfort. The theme also offers its own icon pack to match with the entire look of the system. Despite being minimalistic, the theme will be a great addition to your system.  Run the following command for installing the dependencies/tools of the theme:

$ sudo apt install gtk2-engines-murrine gtk2-engines-pixbuf git autoconf

Now, grab the theme from GitHub:

$ git clone

Install the theme:

$ cd ~/paper-gtk-theme/
$ sudo chmod +x
$ sudo ./

Are you interested in the icon pack of Paper GTK theme? Get it right away:

$ sudo add-apt-repository -u ppa:snwh/ppa

$ sudo apt-get install paper-icon-theme


Vimix is yet another good-looking GTK-based theme. Its juicy interface will definitely catch your heart. It also provides a number of flavors – dark (ruby, beryl etc.) and light (ruby, beryl etc.). Feel free to explore ALL the available options!

Get Vimix:

$ git clone

Install Vimix:

$ cd ~/Vimix-gtk-theme/
$ sudo ./Install


Looking for a stylish theme? Then Evopop is your right choice. This theme was originally the main theme of the Solus project. However, they now utilize the Adapta GTK theme. That doesn’t mean that Evopop went obsolete, either. You can enjoy it right now!

There’re 2 different ways to get Evopop – running the installation script or building it from source. For ease, we’ll go ahead installing with the installation script.

Get Evopop:

$ git clone

Install the theme:

$ cd ~/evopop-gtk-theme/
$ sudo chmod +x
$ sudo chmod +x
$ sudo ./

If you want to enjoy the Azure version,

$ sudo ./

If you’re using Geary, then the theme may run into problem. Run the fixing script to ensure that everything runs fine:

$ sudo ./


If you’re tired of all the material themes going all around, then Arrogin will surely make you happy. The theme is based on material design, yet the flavor is quite different. It’s also “flat”, ensuring the minimalistic and charming look. Let’s get Arrogin! Run the following command for installing all the dependencies:

$ sudo apt install gtk2-engines-murrine gtk2-engines-pixbuf

Set Arrogin in your system:

$ tar -xvJf Extra-2.4.tar.xz
$ tar -xvJf Arrongin-Buttons-Right.tar.xz
# OR
$ tar -xvJf Arrongin-Buttons-Left.tar.xz

$ cd ~/Extra-2.4
$ mkdir -p ~/Pictures/Arrongin-wallpapers/
$ mv *.png ~/Pictures/Arrongin-wallpapers/

$ sudo mv Arrongin-Buttons-Left /usr/share/themes/
# OR
$ sudo mv Arrongin-Buttons-Right /usr/share/themes/


This is the current theme of the Solus project. Solus project is always popular for their awesome themes. Let’s get Adapta.  Add the Adapta repository:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:tista/adapta

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt install adapta-gtk-theme


Another flat, material design GTK theme for your collection. Stylish is truly a stylish theme that you’ll definitely love.

Install dependencies:

$ sudo apt install gtk2-engines-murrine gtk2-engines-pixbuf libxml2-utils

Get Stylish:

$ git clone

Install the theme:

$ cd ~/stylish-gtk-theme/
$ sudo chmod +x Install

$ sudo ./Install

You can update the theme easily with the update script.

$ ./update-stylish-online


Need something spicy? Something that will completely change the flavor of your system? Then Pop GTK theme is the right one for you. The theme is highly energetic and cool looking.

Install dependencies:

$ sudo apt install gtk2-engines-murrine gtk2-engines-pixbuf

Add the Pop theme repository:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:system76/pop

Install Pop theme:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install pop-gtk-theme


Another stylish GTK theme for desktop environments that support GTK 2 and GTK 3. Abrus is a nice, material like and dark theme, perfect for eye comfort and style.

Install dependencies:

$ sudo apt install gtk2-engines-murrine gtk2-engines-pixbuf

For avoiding any unnecessary trouble with the theme, install this package:

$ sudo apt install libxml2-utils

Get Abrus:

$ git clone

Install Abrus:

$ cd ~/Abrus-gtk-theme
$ sudo chmod +x Install

$ sudo ./Install


Yet another cool theme with flat design. This theme is a fine-tuned version of the Arc theme we discussed before.

Install dependencies:

$ sudo apt install gtk2-engines-murrine gtk2-engines-pixbuf

Install additional package for avoiding problems:

$ sudo apt install libxml2-utils

Install Matcha from PPA:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ryu0/aesthetics

$ sudo apt-get update

$ sudo apt install matcha-theme

Enabling all the themes:

You may have installed all your favorite theme correctly, but how to activate them? Go to Settings >> Appearance.

Here, you’ll find all the available themes for your system.

Bottom line

Hope you guys enjoyed the awesome collection of all the themes.

Sidratul Muntaha